Role Play for ESL/EFL Children in the English ClassroomIrene Y. Huang
Jing Shan Elementary School (Taipei County, Taiwan)
ETMA Program, National Cheng Chi University (Taipei, Taiwan)
IntroductionAs Larsen-Freeman pointed out in her book "Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching", "Role-plays are very important in the Communicative Approach because they give students an opportunity to practice communicating in different social contexts and in different social roles." (p. 137, Larsen-Freeman) In order to help students improve their listening, speaking and overall communicative skills, I have designed and conducted several role play activities for my students to practice and use English in a more meaningful way as a practical language, and the results of my students' learning are quite positive.
In the past few years, I have tried to let students act out several short plays adapted from children's favorite story books. Students love acting and playing, but the scripts can look overwhelming and intimidating since they have just begun to learn English as a foreign language, and the amounts of English words they know are limited. The lines normally take a lot of time and efforts for students to learn, practice and memorize. So, instead of asking students to perform an entire story, I tried to extract some situations and dialogs from teaching materials and have students act out some dramatic situations. Students played characters and said their lines out loud. It's much easier to teach vocabulary, lines, and the dramatic elements needed for a role play situation than to teach the elements of an entire play. And by letting students practice in pairs or small groups, every student can be involved in the role play exercises and enjoy the benefits of role play.
Definitions of Role PlayAccording to Brown (2001), "role-play minimally involves (a) giving a role to one or more members of a group and (b) assigning an objective or purpose that participants must accomplish." Brown suggested role-play can be conducted with a single person, in pairs or in groups, with each person assigned a role to accomplish an objective. (p. 183)
McCaslin (1995) introduced role play as having the following characteristics:
It (role play) refers to the assuming of a role for the particular value it may have to the participant, rather for the development of an art….Role playing is what the young child does in a dramatic play, but it is also a tool used by psychologists and play therapists….According to Richard Courtney (1974), "Play, acting and thought are interrelated. They are mechanisms by which the individual tests reality, gets rid of his anxieties, and masters his environment." (p.177)(p.10)
BackgroundThere are many benefits of using role play. Furness (1976) stated that a child can enjoy and profit from a role play experience "in terms of improved communication skills, creativity, increased social awareness, independent thinking, verbalization of opinions, development of values and appreciation of the art of drama."(p.19) He provided seventeen advantages of role-play.
Ladousse (2004) indicated that "role play is one of a whole gamut of communicative techniques which develops fluency in language students, which promotes interaction in the classroom, and which increases motivation." (p.7) In addition, he pointed out that role play encourages peer learning and sharing the responsibility for learning between teacher and student. He suggested role play to be "perhaps the most flexible technique in the range" of communicative techniques, and with suitable and effective role-play exercises, teachers can meet an infinite variety of needs.(Ladousse, 2004, p. 7)
Stern (1983) suggested "role playing helps the individual to become more flexible" and "develop a sense of mastery in many situations". (p. 213) She suggested "through role play, L2 learners can experience many kinds of situations in which they will use the language; and as they develop a sense of mastery in them, they should be able to apply the language more easily to new situations." (p.213)
ProcedureFor the role play activities in my classes, there are six major steps in the procedure.
1. Decide on the Teaching MaterialsThe teacher must decide which teaching materials will be used for role play activities. The teaching materials can be taken from text books or non-textbook teaching materials such as picture books, story books, readers, play-scripts, comic strips, movies, cartoons and pictures. The material is selected ahead of time by the teacher. The teacher can also create his or her own authentic teaching materials for role play activities. The teaching materials should be decided based on students' level and interests, teaching objectives and appropriateness for teaching
2. Select Situations and Create DialogsThen a situation or situations to be role played should be selected. For every role plays situation, dialogs should be provided (by the teaching materials or by the teacher) or created by the students themselves.
3. Teach the Dialogs for Role PlaysThe teacher needs to teach the vocabulary, sentences, and dialogs necessary for the role play situations. The teacher needs to make sure the students know how to use the vocabulary, sentences and dialogs prior to doing the role play activities, otherwise, the teacher should allow students to ask how to say the words they want to say.
4. Have Students Practice the Role PlaysStudents can practice in pairs or in small groups. After they have played their own roles a few times, have them exchange roles. That way, students can play different roles and practice all of the lines in the role play. When students are confident enough to demonstrate or perform in front of the class, the teacher can ask them to do so for their classmates.
5. Have Students Modify the Situations and DialogsOnce students have finished and become familiar with an original role play situation, they can modify the situations and/or dialogs to create a variation of the original role play.
6. Evaluate and Check Students' ComprehensionFinally, the teacher shall evaluate the effectiveness of the role play activities and check if students have successfully comprehended the meanings of the vocabulary, sentences and dialogs. There are several ways to do student evaluations. Students can be given oral and listening tests relating to the role plays. Example oral tests can include the following.
- Students are asked to answer some simple questions relating to the role plays.
- Students are asked to reenact the role plays.
- Students are asked to translate the role plays into their native language.
ConclusionRole play is really a worthwhile learning experience for both the students and the teacher. Not only can students have more opportunities to "act" and "interact" with their peers trying to use the English language, but also students' English speaking, listening, and understanding will improve. Role play lightens up the atmospheres and brings liveliness in the classes. Students learn to use the language in a more realistic, more practical way. Thus they can become more aware of the usefulness and practicality of English. Role play is indeed a useful teaching technique which should be experimented and applied by ESL/EFL teachers more often in the ESL/EFL classrooms.
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The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. XIV, No. 2, February 2008